Process Overview

Process Overview Image

Coal Preparation

Sub bituminous Collie coal is milled to fine particles and dried to improve conversion efficiency before being fed into the gasifier.

Air Separation

The air separation unit concentrates oxygen from air to help facilitate the reaction in the gasifier. The nitrogen is used as an inert carrier gas and for the ammonia synthesis.


Gasification converts coal to gas (syngas) at a high efficiency by partial oxidation of coal with oxygen, to mainly carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The coal ash is melted and recovered as a marketable stable glassy slag.


In the water-gas shift reaction the carbon monoxide in the syngas reacts with water to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen. High purity hydrogen is required for the ammonia synthesis.

Gas Clean-up

The raw syngas contains traces of impurities like trace minerals, particulates and sulphur as well as carbon dioxide that are removed in the clean up section. Sulphur can be sold and carbon dioxide is used in the urea production.

The balance of the carbon dioxide not used in the urea production is carbon capture ready for geo-sequestration.

Power Generation

The clean syngas is burned as fuel in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle system generating the electricity required for the plant.

Ammonia Synthesis

In the ammonia synthesis hydrogen reacts in the presence of a catalyst with nitrogen from the air separation unit to form ammonia.

Urea Production

The ammonia is reacted with the carbon dioxide which was removed from the syngas in the gas clean-up section to produce liquid ureas. The urea solution is then dried and granulated, an easily transported and user friendly form of nitrogen

The urea is transported by rail from the plant to the Port of Bunbury for export.

Coal Preparation Gasification Air Separation Shift Power Generation Gas Clean-up Sulphur Recovery Ammonia Synthesis Urea Production